A Guide to the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit Requirements, Process, and Compliance

Navigating the complexities of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit can be a daunting task, but this comprehensive guide breaks down the essential components, making it easier to understand and manage the permitting process. Learn about the specific resources protected under ARPA, the detailed application requirements, and the critical compliance obligations that come with the permit. Explore the role of technology in streamlining the process and discover best practices for overcoming common challenges. With a strong emphasis on public participation and stakeholder engagement, this guide provides the tools and knowledge needed to successfully obtain and maintain an ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit while ensuring the protection of our nation's invaluable archaeological resources.

GENERAL INFORMATION

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Key Details

Issuing Agency: U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Army Corps of Engineers (for projects on Corps-managed lands).

Year Established: 1979.

Legal References:

  • Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (16 U.S.C. 470aa-470mm).
  • 32 CFR Part 229: Protection of Archaeological Resources.1
  • 36 CFR Part 296: Protection of Archaeological Resources: Uniform Regulations.2

Date Last Amended: The most recent amendments to the Archaeological Resources Protection Act were made in 1988.

Other Key Facts:

  • ARPA was enacted to protect archaeological resources on public and Indian lands.
  • The permit system established under ARPA regulates the excavation and removal of archaeological resources.

Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit Overview

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit operates within the broader regulatory framework of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979. This act was established to protect archaeological resources on public and Indian lands from unauthorized excavation, removal, damage, and destruction.

The permit primarily focuses on preserving and managing archaeological resources, which include any material remains of past human life or activities that are of archaeological interest and are at least 100 years old.

Multiple agencies are involved in the administration of the ARPA permit, including the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Army Corps of Engineers (for projects on Corps-managed lands).

Since its enactment in 1979, ARPA has undergone amendments, with the most recent changes made in 1988. These amendments have strengthened the act's enforcement provisions and increased penalties for violations.

Which Resources Are Regulated By ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit?

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit plays a crucial role in protecting and preserving archaeological resources on public and Indian lands. The permit regulates the following resources:

Protected Resources:

  • Material remains of human life or activities that are at least 100 years old and of archaeological interest.
  • Examples include pottery, baskets, bottles, weapons, weapon projectiles, tools, structures or portions of structures, pit houses, rock paintings, rock carvings, intaglios, graves, human skeletal materials, or any portion or piece of any of the foregoing items.

Protection Measures:

  • The permit protects these resources from unauthorized excavation, removal, damage, alteration, or defacement.
  • It ensures that any excavation or noval of archaeological resources is conducted by qualified individuals in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit.

PROJECT APPLICABILITY & REQUIREMENTS

When ARPA Excavation & Removal Permits Are Required

Understanding when an Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit is required is crucial for developers, environmental consultants, and other stakeholders involved in projects that may impact archaeological resources. This permit is designed to protect and preserve archaeological sites, artifacts, and other cultural resources on federal and Indian lands.

Activity/ActionEnvironmental ConsiderationsPotential Impacts
Excavation of archaeological sitesDisturbance of soil and cultural artifactsDestruction or loss of archaeological resources, loss of cultural heritage
Removal of archaeological resourcesDisplacement of artifacts from their original contextLoss of scientific and cultural information, damage to archaeological resources
Alteration of archaeological sitesModification of site features and structuresCompromised integrity of archaeological sites, loss of historical and cultural value
Construction activities on federal or Indian landsGround disturbance and potential encounters with archaeological resourcesInadvertent damage or destruction of archaeological sites and artifacts

Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit Exemptions

While the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit is essential for protecting archaeological resources, certain activities may be exempt from the permit requirements. These exemptions are designed to allow for specific uses of federal and Indian lands while still ensuring the preservation of cultural heritage.

Exemptions include:

  1. Surface collection of arrowheads: The collection of arrowheads found on the surface of the ground is allowed without a permit, provided that the collection does not involve any subsurface disturbance.
  2. Excavation and removal by Indian tribes: Archaeological excavation and removal conducted by Indian tribes on their own lands are exempt from ARPA permit requirements. However, tribes are encouraged to adopt their own regulations for the protection of archaeological resources.
  3. Archaeological investigations by federal agencies: Federal agencies may conduct archaeological investigations on lands under their jurisdiction without obtaining an ARPA permit, provided that the investigations are conducted in accordance with the agency's own regulations and policies.

To determine if a project qualifies for an exemption, it is recommended to consult with the relevant regulatory agency, such as the National Park Service or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. These agencies can provide guidance on the applicability of exemptions and any specific conditions or limitations that may apply.

Consultation Guidance:

  • Contact the appropriate regulatory agency early in the project planning process to discuss potential exemptions.
  • Provide detailed information about the project, including the location, scope, and any potential impacts on archaeological resources.
  • Be prepared to follow the agency's recommendations and implement any necessary mitigation measures to ensure the protection of archaeological resources, even if an exemption applies.

PERMIT APPLICATION & PROCESS

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Pre-Application Considerations & Planning

graph TD
    A["Project Conception"] --> B["Preliminary Site Assessment"]
    B --> C{"Archeological Resources Identified?"}
    C -->|Yes| D["Consult with Permitting Agency"]
    C -->|No| E["Proceed with Project Planning"]
    D --> F["Determine Permit Requirements"]
    F --> G["Incorporate into Project Plan & Timeline"]
    G --> H["Initiate Permit Application Process"]

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit process is a critical component of any project that may impact archeological resources on federal or Indian lands[^200]. The permit process should be initiated as early as possible in the project lifecycle, ideally during the preliminary site assessment phase.

A typical project timeline might look like this:

  1. Project Conception (Month 1)
  2. Preliminary Site Assessment (Months 2-3)
    • Archeological resource identification
    • Initial consultation with permitting agency
  3. Project Planning (Months 4-6)
    • Determine permit requirements
    • Incorporate permit process into project plan and timeline
  4. Permit Application Submission (Month 7)
  5. Permit Review and Decision (Months 8-12)
  6. Project Implementation (Months 13+)

Early identification of potential archeological resources and consultation with the permitting agency are key to ensuring a smooth and timely permit process. Failure to adequately plan for and address permitting requirements can result in significant project delays and increased costs[^201].

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Application Requirements & Submission

A complete Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit application must include several key components to demonstrate the project's compliance with regulatory requirements and to facilitate the permitting agency's review[^202].

Required application materials typically include:

  1. Application Form: A standardized form that collects basic information about the project, the applicant, and the archeological resources to be impacted.
  2. Research Design: A detailed plan outlining the scientific rationale, methods, and objectives of the proposed excavation or removal. This document aims to demonstrate the project's scientific merit and public benefit[^203].
  3. Site Management Plan: A comprehensive plan describing how the project will be conducted, including measures to protect and preserve archeological resources, artifact curation and storage, and site restoration.
  4. Qualifications: Documentation of the professional qualifications and experience of the individuals who will be conducting the excavation or removal, to ensure they meet the Secretary of the Interior's standards[^204].
  5. Tribal Consultation: Evidence of consultation with affected Indian tribes, if applicable, to address any concerns or issues related to the proposed excavation or removal[^205].
  6. Environmental Assessment: An evaluation of the project's potential environmental impacts and proposed mitigation measures, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)[^206].

The purpose of these application materials is to provide the permitting agency with sufficient information to evaluate the project's compliance with ARPA and other applicable regulations, and to ensure that the proposed excavation or removal is conducted in a scientifically and ethically responsible manner.

The ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Review & Decision Process

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit process should be initiated well in advance of the desired project start date to allow adequate time for agency review and public participation[^207].

The permit review and decision process typically follows these steps:

  1. Pre-Application Consultation: The applicant meets with the permitting agency to discuss the project and permit requirements, and to identify any potential issues or concerns.
  2. Application Submission: The applicant submits a complete permit application, including all required forms, documentation, and plans.
  3. Completeness Review: The permitting agency reviews the application for completeness and may request additional information if necessary. This step typically takes 30-60 days[^208].
  4. Technical Review: Once the application is deemed complete, the permitting agency conducts a thorough technical review to evaluate the project's compliance with ARPA and other applicable regulations. This step may involve consultation with other agencies, tribes, or stakeholders, and can take several months[^209].
  5. Public Participation: The permitting agency solicits public input on the proposed project through public notices, hearings, or comment periods, as required by ARPA and NEPA[^210].
  6. Permit Decision: Based on the technical review and public input, the permitting agency makes a decision to approve, conditionally approve, or deny the permit. This decision is typically issued within 180 days of receiving a complete application[^211].

Key approval criteria include:

  • Scientific merit and public benefit of the proposed excavation or removal
  • Professional qualifications of the project personnel
  • Adequacy of the site management and preservation plans
  • Compliance with ARPA, NEPA, and other applicable regulations

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Public Participation & Stakeholder Engagement

Public participation is an essential component of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit process, as it allows interested parties to provide input and raise concerns about the potential impacts of the proposed project[^212].

ARPA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) both require opportunities for public participation during the permit review process. These opportunities may include[^213]:

  • Public Notices: The permitting agency must publish a notice of the permit application in the Federal Register and/or local newspapers, inviting public comment on the proposed project.
  • Public Hearings: For projects with significant public interest or potential impacts, the permitting agency may hold public hearings to allow oral testimony and discussion.
  • Comment Periods: The permitting agency typically establishes a formal comment period, usually 30-60 days, during which written comments on the permit application may be submitted.

The permitting agency is required to consider and respond to all substantive comments received during the public participation process. This input can influence the agency's permit decision and may result in changes to the project design or additional mitigation measures[^214].

Effective stakeholder engagement is crucial for navigating the public participation process and building support for the project. Key stakeholders may include:

  • Affected Indian tribes
  • Local communities and landowners
  • Archaeological and historical societies
  • Environmental organizations
  • Government agencies

Proactive outreach and consultation with these groups can help identify and address concerns early in the process, reducing the risk of delays or opposition during the formal public participation period[^215].

Common Challenges and Pitfalls in the ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Process

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit process can be complex and time-consuming, and project proponents may encounter several common challenges:

  1. Incomplete or inadequate permit applications: Submitting an incomplete or insufficient application can result in delays as the permitting agency requests additional information or clarification.
  2. Failure to consult with tribes or other stakeholders: Neglecting to engage key stakeholders early in the process can lead to unexpected opposition or concerns during the public participation period.
  3. Underestimating the time and cost of the permit process: The permit process can take several months to a year or more, and may require significant resources for studies, mitigation measures, and public outreach.
  4. Non-compliance with ARPA or other regulations: Projects that do not fully comply with ARPA, NEPA, or other applicable laws may face legal challenges or enforcement actions.

To avoid these pitfalls, project proponents should[^217]:

  • Begin the permit process early and allow ample time for review and public participation
  • Engage experienced professionals to develop a comprehensive and well-supported permit application
  • Consult with the permitting agency, tribes, and other stakeholders throughout the process
  • Ensure the project is designed and implemented in full compliance with all applicable laws and regulations
  • Be prepared to adapt the project design or mitigation measures in response to agency or public input

Successful navigation of the ARPA permit process requires careful planning, attention to detail, and a commitment to transparency and collaboration with all involved parties.

[^200]: 16 U.S.C. §470aa-470mm [^201]: National Park Service. (2016). The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA). https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/laws/arpa.htm [^202]: 43 CFR 7.6 - Application for permits and information collection [^203]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^204]: 43 CFR 7.8 - Terms and conditions of permits [^205]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^206]: 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. [^207]: National Park Service. (2016). The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA). https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/laws/arpa.htm [^208]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^209]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^210]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits; 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. [^211]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^212]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits [^213]: 43 CFR 7.7 - Issuance of permits; 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. [^214]: 40 CFR 1503 - Commenting [^215]: National Park Service. (2016). The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA). https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/laws/arpa.htm

[^217]: National Park Service. (2016). The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA). https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/laws/arpa.htm

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR PERMIT COMPLIANCE

Leveraging Technology for Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit Compliance

Technology plays a crucial role in streamlining and enhancing the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit compliance process. By leveraging data management, site assessment, and monitoring tools, developers and permit applicants can improve efficiency, accuracy, and transparency throughout the permit compliance journey.

Benefits of using technology for permit compliance:

  1. Centralized data management and easy access to critical information
  2. Improved accuracy in site assessment and impact analysis
  3. Real-time monitoring and reporting capabilities
  4. Enhanced collaboration and communication among stakeholders
  5. Increased transparency and accountability in the compliance process

Common tools and platforms used in the industry:

  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for spatial analysis and mapping
  • Environmental database management systems
  • Remote sensing and drone technology for site surveys
  • Predictive modeling software for archaeological resource identification
  • Digital reporting and compliance tracking platforms
Technology SolutionKey Benefits
GIS- Spatial analysis and mapping- Site suitability assessment- Impact visualization
Environmental databases- Centralize data management- Easy access to critical information- Improved collaboration among stakeholders
Remote sensing and drones- Non-invasive site surveys- High-resolution imagery and data collection- Efficient monitoring of large areas
Predictive modeling software- Identification of potential archaeological resources- Prioritization of survey efforts- Informed decision-making
Digital reporting platforms- Streamlined compliance reporting- Real-time tracking of permit requirements- Increased transparency and accountability

By incorporating these technological solutions, developers and permit applicants can navigate the ARPA Archaeological Excacation & Removal Permit process more effectively, ensuring compliance and minimizing potential delays or setbacks.

Transect: An Innovative Solution for Site Selection & Environmental Due Diligence

Transect is an all-in-one environmental due diligence solution that combines software knowledge with hands-on field experience to revolutionize site selection and permitting for industries such as solar, wind, renewable energy, and more. This innovative platform offers a range of features and benefits that help developers and permit applicants streamline their processes and ensure compliance with Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit requirements.

Key features and benefits of Transect:

  1. Swift Site Pinpointing and Suitability Analysis: Quickly determine the best sites for project development.
  2. Real-time Data Updates and Critical Issues Identification: Stay updated with the latest environmental data and identify potential issues early, allowing for proactive mitigation and compliance planning.
  3. Versatility across Multiple Industries and Project Types: Suitable for a wide range of industries, including solar, wind, and other renewable energies, Transect offers a flexible and adaptable solution for various project scales and types.
  4. User-Friendly Interface and Intuitive Workflow: Ensure ease of use and efficiency in project planning.
  5. Efficiency Gains and Cost Savings: Reduce the costs and delays typically associated with traditional environmental due diligence.
  6. Proactive Risk Mitigation and Compliance Assurance: Proactively address potential compliance issues and minimize risks by identifying critical environmental constraints early in the site selection process.

Transect's unique capabilities empower developers and permit applicants to make informed decisions, reduce project timelines, and ensure ongoing compliance with ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit requirements. By streamlining the site selection and environmental due diligence process, Transect helps users navigate the complex permitting landscape with confidence and efficiency.

POST-PERMIT COMPLIANCE & MANAGEMENT

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Conditions & Compliance Obligations

An Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit comes with a set of conditions and requirements that the permit holder must adhere to. These conditions are designed to minimize the impact of the excavation or removal activities on the archaeological resources and the surrounding environment. Some typical conditions include:

  1. Impact Minimization Measures: The permit may require the use of specific techniques or equipment to minimize disturbance to the archaeological site and its context.3
  2. Mitigation Commitments: If the excavation or removal activities are expected to cause unavoidable impacts, the permit may require the implementation of mitigation measures, such as data recovery, site restoration, or public outreach programs.4
  3. Reporting Obligations: The permit holder is usually required to submit regular progress reports and a final report detailing the findings, methods used, and any challenges encountered during the project.5

Adhering to these conditions is crucial for maintaining compliance with the permit and avoiding potential penalties. Moreover, by following these requirements, the permit holder demonstrates a commitment to sustainable and responsible development practices, which not only protect the archaeological resources but also promote good stewardship of our shared cultural heritage.6

ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit Monitoring, Reporting & Recordkeeping Requirements

Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping are essential components of maintaining compliance with an ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit. The specific requirements may vary depending on the project and the permitting agency, but generally include:

  1. Monitoring: The permit holder must regularly monitor the excavation or removal activities to ensure compliance with the permit conditions and to identify any potential issues or impacts.7
  2. Reporting: Progress reports are typically required at specified intervals (e.g., monthly or quarterly), detailing the work completed, any findings, and any deviations from the approved plan. A final report is usually due upon completion of the project.8
  3. Recordkeeping: Accurate and detailed records must be maintained throughout the project, including field notes, photographs, maps, and any collected data or artifacts. These records should be kept organized and accessible for review by the permitting agency if needed.9

Effective data management practices, such as using standardized forms and digital storage systems, can help streamline the reporting and recordkeeping process. Document retention periods may be specified in the permit conditions or by the permitting agency, and it is important to adhere to these requirements to ensure ongoing compliance.

Enforcement and Penalties for Non-Compliance with ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit

Failure to comply with the conditions of an ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit can result in various enforcement actions and penalties, depending on the severity and nature of the violation. These may include:

  1. Administrative Penalties: The permitting agency may issue warnings, notices of violation, or orders requiring corrective action for minor or first-time violations.10
  2. Civil Fines: More serious violations may result in civil fines, which can be substantial. For example, under ARPA, civil penalties can reach up to $10,000 per violation.11
  3. Criminal Charges: In cases of willful or repeated violations, criminal charges may be filed, potentially resulting in fines and imprisonment. ARPA provides for criminal penalties of up to $20,000 and/or one year in prison for first offenses.12
  4. Permit Revocation: In extreme cases, the permitting agency may revoke the permit, effectively halting the project and requiring site restoration.13

Common violations include failure to follow approved plans, unauthorized excavation or removal of artifacts, and failure to report discoveries. To mitigate enforcement risks, it is essential to take prompt corrective action when issues arise and maintain open communication with the permitting agency. By demonstrating a commitment to compliance and working collaboratively with the agency, permit holders can often resolve issues before they escalate to more serious enforcement actions.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & UPDATES

Regulatory Context

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) was enacted in 1979 to protect archaeological resources on public lands and Indian lands. The ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit is a key component of this legislation, regulating the excavation, removal, and disposition of archaeological resources from these lands. The permit system ensures that archaeological resources are properly identified, evaluated, and preserved for future generations 14.

The ARPA defines archaeological resources as "any material remains of past human life or activities which are of archaeological interest" (16 U.S.C. §470bb(1)). This includes, but is not limited to, pottery, basketry, bottles, weapons, weapon projectiles, tools, structures or portions of structures, pit houses, rock paintings, rock carvings, intaglios, graves, human skeletal materials, or any portion or piece of any of the foregoing items 15.

Permit Requirements

An ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit is required for any excavation or removal of archaeological resources from public lands or Indian lands. The permit application must be submitted to the federal land manager by a qualified individual or institution 16.

Application requirements:

  1. Detailed description of the proposed work, including research design, methods, and curation plan
  2. Qualifications of the applicant and key personnel
  3. Evidence of consultation with affected Indian tribes, if applicable
  4. Proof of adequate funding and resources to complete the work
  5. Agreement to comply with all terms and conditions of the permit

The federal land manager will review the application and consult with interested parties, including Indian tribes, before making a decision. The permit may be issued if the proposed work is found to be in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of ARPA 17.

Compliance and Costs

Permit holders must comply with all terms and conditions of the permit, including any mitigation measures or monitoring requirements. Failure to comply may result in revocation of the permit and civil or criminal penalties 18.

Potential costs associated with compliance:

  • Survey and documentation of archaeological resources
  • Excavation and analysis of archaeological materials
  • Curation and long-term storage of archaeological collections
  • Consultation with Indian tribes and other interested parties
  • Implementation of mitigation measures or monitoring requirements

Relevant technologies for compliance may include remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and digital documentation tools 19.

The ARPA Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit is authorized under Section 4 of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (16 U.S.C. §470cc). The Act defines archaeological resources as "any material remains of past human life or activities which are of archaeological interest, as determined under uniform regulations promulgated pursuant to this Act" (16 U.S.C. §470bb(1)).

The Act also specifies that "no person may excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface, or attempt to excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & UPDATES

Recent Changes & Updates to Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) Archaeological Excavation & Removal Permit

  • Effective January 1, 2021: The Department of the Interior updated its regulations implementing ARPA (43 CFR Part 7) to clarify the definition of archaeological resources, streamline the permit application process, and strengthen enforcement provisions 20.

Additional Resources & Information

  • ARPA Uniform Regulations: The complete text of the uniform regulations implementing ARPA, including detailed requirements for permit applications and compliance (43 CFR Part 7).

REFERENCES

  1. Protection of Archaeological Resources, 32 C.F.R. pt. 229 (2021).

  2. Protection of Archaeological Resources: Uniform Regulations, 36 C.F.R. pt. 296 (2021).

  3. 36 CFR § 296.9(b)(3)

  4. 36 CFR § 296.9(b)(4)

  5. 36 CFR § 296.9(b)(7)

  6. "Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA)," National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/laws/arpa.htm.

  7. 36 CFR § 296.14

  8. 36 CFR § 296.9(b)(7)

  9. 36 CFR § 296.12

  10. 36 CFR § 296.15(a)

  11. 16 U.S.C. § 470ff(a)(1)

  12. 16 U.S.C. § 470ee(d)

  13. 36 CFR § 296.15(b)

  14. Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, 16 U.S.C. §470aa-470mm (2021).

  15. 16 U.S.C. §470bb(1) (2021).

  16. 16 U.S.C. §470cc(a) (2021).

  17. 16 U.S.C. §470cc(b) (2021).

  18. 16 U.S.C. §470ee(d) (2021).

  19. National Park Service, "Archaeological Resources Protection Act Permitting Guide,"

  20. Department of the Interior, "Final Rule: Protection of Archaeological Resources," Federal Register 85, no. 242 (December 16, 2020): 81455-81472, https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2020/12/16/2020-27579/protection-of-archaeological-resources.

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A Note to Our Readers: We hope this guide is a valuable resource in helping you better understand the ARPA Excavation & Removal Permit. However, it's not a substitute for professional advice and doesn't cover every scenario. Always consult with regulatory bodies and professionals for the most current advice and project-specific guidance.