A Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit Requirements, Process, and Compliance

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit is a critical regulatory framework that ensures the safety and quality of drinking water supplied by public water systems. This comprehensive guide delves into the intricacies of the SDWA PWSS Program Permit, providing a wealth of information on the permit's regulatory context, requirements, compliance obligations, and recent updates. Readers will gain a thorough understanding of the permit application process, including pre-application considerations, application components, and the review and decision process. The guide also explores the role of technology in facilitating permit compliance and introduces Transect, an innovative solution for streamlining site selection and environmental due diligence. With a focus on practical guidance and real-world examples, this resource equips readers with the knowledge and tools necessary to navigate the complex landscape of the SDWA PWSS Program Permit and ensure the protection of public health through the provision of safe drinking water.

GENERAL INFORMATION

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Key Details

Issuing Agency: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)1

Year Established: 19742

Legal References:

  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 19742
  • National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR)3

Date Last Amended: 20184

Other Key Facts:

  • The SDWA protects public health by regulating the nation's public drinking water supply and its sources.2
  • The permit applies to all public water systems, which provide water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances to at least 15 service connections or serve an average of at least 25 people for at least 60 days a year.

Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit Overview

The Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit operates within the broader regulatory framework established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974. The SDWA was enacted to protect public health by regulating the nation's public drinking water supply and its sources, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells.2

The primary environmental concerns addressed by the permit are the potential contamination of public drinking water sources by pollutants such as microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic and organic chemicals, and radionuclides.3

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the primary agency involved in the permit's administration, with state, local, and tribal governments also playing a role in implementing and enforcing the SDWA.1

The SDWA has undergone several amendments since its inception in 1974, with major revisions in 1986 and 1996. These amendments have strengthened the Act's protection of drinking water, including the establishment of the Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program and the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund.2

Which Resources Are Regulated By SDWA PWSS Program Permit?

The Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit plays a crucial role in protecting the nation's public drinking water resources from contamination. The permit specifically regulates:

Protected Resources:

  • Public drinking water sources, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells.2
  • Public water systems, which provide water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances to at least 15 service connections or serve an average of at least 25 people for at least 60 days a year.

Protection Measures:

  • The permit protects these resources from contamination by pollutants such as microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic and organic chemicals, and radionuclides.3
  • The permit achieves this protection by setting national health-based standards for drinking water quality and monitoring public water systems to ensure compliance with these standards.2

PROJECT APPLICABILITY & REQUIREMENTS

When SDWA PWSS Program Permit Permits Are Required

Understanding when a Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit is required is crucial for ensuring compliance and protecting public health. The SDWA PWSS Program regulates public water systems to ensure the provision of safe drinking water to the public.5 The following table outlines the types of activities, actions, or materials that trigger the need for this permit, along with the associated environmental considerations or potential impacts:

Activity/Action/MaterialEnvironmental Considerations/Potential Impacts
Construction of a new public water systemEnsuring the new system meets all SDWA requirements, including water quality standards, treatment techniques, and monitoring requirements.6
Modification of an existing public water systemAssessing the impact of modifications on water quality and ensuring continued compliance with SDWA regulations.7
Expansion of an existing public water systemEvaluating the capacity of the expanded system to maintain water quality and meet increased demand while adhering to SDWA standards.8
Use of a new water source for a public water systemConducting a thorough analysis of the new water source to ensure it meets SDWA water quality standards and does not introduce contaminants into the system.9

Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit Permit Exemptions

Certain activities may be exempt from the requirements of the SDWA PWSS Program Permit. However, it is essential to note that these exemptions are limited and subject to specific conditions.10 The following list details the exemptions and their associated conditions or limitations:

  1. Emergency Repairs: Emergency repairs to public water systems may be exempt from permit requirements if the repairs are necessary to prevent or mitigate an imminent threat to public health and safety. The system owner must notify the regulatory agency as soon as possible and comply with any follow-up requirements.11

  2. Routine Maintenance: Routine maintenance activities, such as replacing worn-out equipment or making minor repairs, may be exempt from permit requirements if they do not significantly alter the system's capacity, water quality, or treatment processes. The system owner should consult with the regulatory agency to confirm the applicability of this exemption.12

  3. Temporary Water Supply: In cases of temporary water supply disruptions, such as during natural disasters or other emergencies, the use of alternative water sources may be exempt from permit requirements. However, the system owner must ensure that the alternative source meets SDWA water quality standards and obtain approval from the regulatory agency.13

To determine if a project qualifies for an exemption, system owners should carefully review the specific conditions and limitations associated with each exemption. It is highly recommended to consult with the relevant regulatory agency to confirm the applicability of an exemption and ensure compliance with any additional requirements or reporting obligations.14

Consultation Guidance: When engaging with regulatory agencies for exemption verification, system owners should:

  • Provide a detailed description of the planned activity or project
  • Explain how the activity or project meets the conditions for the claimed exemption
  • Be prepared to submit any necessary documentation or supporting ski- Maintain open communication with the regulatory agency throughout the process15

PERMIT APPLICATION & PROCESS

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Pre-Application Considerations & Planning

Diagram of SDWA PWSS Program Permit Pre-Application Considerations & Planning
Diagram of SDWA PWSS Program Permit Pre-Application Considerations & Planning

Before embarking on the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit process, it is essential to understand how the permit fits into the overall project lifecycle. The permit process typically begins with a pre-application consultation, where the project proponent engages with the permitting agency to discuss the project's scope, potential impacts, and permitting requirements.

Following the consultation, the proponent prepares and submits the permit application, which includes various forms, documents, and plans demonstrating the project's compliance with SDWA requirements. The permitting agency then reviews the application, assesses the project's potential impacts on public water systems, and decides whether to issue or deny the permit.

Here's a text-based timeline illustrating the project lifecycle and permit touchpoints:

  1. Project Conception
  2. Pre-Application Consultation
  3. Application Preparation & Submission
  4. Application Review & Decision
  5. Permit Issuance or Denial
  6. Project Implementation & Compliance

The SDWA PWSS Program Permit process is a critical component of the project lifecycle, as it ensures that the proposed project will not adversely affect public water systems and complies with all relevant regulations. The permit process can significantly influence key decisions and timelines, so it is crucial to initiate the process early and allow sufficient time for application preparation, review, and potential revisions.

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Application Requirements & Submission

To apply for a Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit, project proponents must submit a comprehensive application package to the permitting agency. The application typically includes the following components:

  1. Application Form: A completed application form that provides basic information about the project, such as the proponent's contact details, project location, and description.

  2. Project Description: A detailed narrative describing the project's purpose, scope, and potential impacts on public water systems. This section should also discuss the project's consistency with local, state, and federal water quality standards and regulations.

  3. Technical Reports: Various technical reports and studies assessing the project's potential impacts on water quality, such as a Source Water Assessment, Sanitary Survey, and Water Quality Analysis. These reports should be prepared by qualified professionals and follow recognized industry standards and guidelines.

  4. Plans and Specifications: Detailed plans and specifications for the proposed water system infrastructure, including treatment facilities, distribution networks, and monitoring systems. These documents should demonstrate that the project will comply with all applicable design and construction standards.

  5. Operations and Maintenance Plan: A comprehensive plan outlining the procedures for operating, maintaining, and monitoring the water system to ensure ongoing compliance with SDWA requirements.

  6. Emergency Response Plan: A plan describing the actions to be taken in case of water supply emergencies, such as contamination incidents or system failures.

  7. Public Participation Plan: A plan for engaging and informing the public throughout the project's lifecycle, including opportunities for public comment and input.

The purpose of each application component is to demonstrate to the permitting agency that the proposed project will comply with all SDWA requirements and will not pose unacceptable risks to public water systems. The permitting agency will review the application package for completeness and adequisplay before making a permit decision.

The SDWA PWSS Program Permit Review & Decision Process

The ideal timing for initiating the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit process is during the early stages of project planning, well before the intended start of construction. This allows sufficient time for pre-application consultation, application preparation, and the permit review process.

The chronological steps of the permit process are as follows:

  1. Pre-Application Consultation: The project proponent meets with the permitting agency to discuss the project and permitting requirements. This consultation helps identify potential issues and ensures that the application package is complete and adequate.

  2. Application Preparation & Submission: The proponent prepares and submits the permit application, including all required forms, documents, and plans.

  3. Completeness Review: The permitting agency reviews the application for completeness and may request additional information if necessary. This review typically takes 30-60 days.

  4. Technical Review: If the application is deemed complete, the permitting agency conducts a detailed technical review to assess the project's compliance with SDWA requirements. This review may involve requesting clarifications or modifications from the proponent and typically takes 60-90 days.

  5. Public Comment Period: The permitting agency issues a draft permit decision and opens a public comment period, usually lasting 30-60 days. During this time, the public can submit comments or request a public hearing.

  6. Final Decision: After considering public comments, the permitting agency issues a final permit decision, either approving or denying the permit. If approved, the permit will include specific conditions and requirements that the project must comply with.

The key approval criteria for a SDWA PWSS Program Permit include:

  • Compliance with all applicable SDWA regulations and standards
  • Demonstration of technical, managerial, and financial capacity to operate the water system
  • Adequate protection of public health and water quality
  • Consistency with local, state, and federal water resource management plans

The entire permit review process typically takes 6-12 months, depending on the project's complexity and the number of public comments received.

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Public Participation & Stakeholder Engagement

Public participation is an essential component of the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit process, as it allows stakeholders to provide input and voice concerns about the proposed project. The permitting agency is obligated to consider and respond to substantive comments received during the public comment period.

Public input is typically solicited at two key points in the permit process:

  1. Draft Permit Decision: After completing the technical review, the permitting agency issues a draft permit decision and opens a public comment period, usually lasting 30-60 days. During this time, the public can submit written comments or request a public hearing.

  2. Public Hearing: If requested by a significant number of stakeholders or if the project is particularly controversial, the permitting agency may hold a public hearing to allow oral testimony and further discussion of the project. The hearing typically occurs during the public comment period.

Public input can take several forms, including:

  • Written comments submitted via mail, email, or online portals
  • Oral testimony at public hearings
  • Petitions or letters of support or opposition from community groups or organizations

The permitting agency must consider all substantive comments received during the public comment period and respond to them in writing when issuing the final permit decision. Public comments can influence the permit decision in several ways, such as:

  • Identifying additional permit conditions or requirements to address stakeholder concerns
  • Requiring modifications to the project design or operations to mitigate potential impacts
  • In rare cases, leading to the denial of the permit if the project is deemed to pose unacceptable risks to public water systems

Public participation is crucial to the SDWA PWSS Program Permit process, as it ensures that the permitting agency considers a wide range of perspectives and concerns when making its decision. It also helps to build public trust and support for the project by providing transparency and opportunities for engagement.

Common Challenges and Pitfalls in the SDWA PWSS Program Permit Process

Project proponents may encounter several common challenges and pitfalls during the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit process, including:

  1. Incomplete or Inadequate Application: Submitting an application that lacks required information or does not adequately demonstrate compliance with SDWA requirements can lead to delays or denial of the permit. To avoid this, proponents should carefully review the application requirements and engage in pre-application consultation with the permitting agency.

  2. Inconsistency with Water Resource Management Plans: If the proposed project is not consistent with local, state, or federal water resource management plans, it may face opposition from stakeholders or be denied a permit. Proponents should ensure that their project aligns with these plans and supports the overall goals of sustainable water resource management.

  3. Public Opposition: Projects that are perceived to pose risks to public water systems or that do not adequately address stakeholder concerns may face significant public opposition, which can delay or derail the permit process. Proponents should engage with stakeholders early and often, provide transparent information about the project, and be responsive to public input.

  4. Technical Deficiencies: If the technical reports or plans submitted with the application are found to be deficient or do not meet industry standards, the permitting agency may require revisions or additional studies, leading to delays. Proponents should work with qualified professionals and ensure that all technical documents are thorough, accurate, and compliant with relevant guidelines.

To overcome these challenges and avoid common mistakes, project proponents should consider the following best practices:

  • Engage in early and frequent pre-application consultation with the permitting agency
  • Develop a robust public participation plan and engage with stakeholders throughout the project lifecycle
  • Ensure that the project is consistent with local, state, and federal water resource management plans
  • Work with qualified professionals to prepare high-quality technical reports and plans
  • Allow sufficient time and resources for the permit process, including potential delays or revisions

By following these best practices and learning from the experiences of past projects, proponents can navigate the SDWA PWSS Program Permit process more successfully and efficiently.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR PERMIT COMPLIANCE

Leveraging Technology for Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit Compliance

Technology plays a crucial role in streamlining and enhancing the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit compliance process. By leveraging data management, site assessment, and monitoring tools, permit applicants can improve efficiency, accuracy, and transparency throughout the compliance journey.16

Some key benefits of using technology for permit compliance include:

  • Centralized data storage and easy access to critical information
  • Automated data collection and analysis for faster decision-making
  • Real-time monitoring and alerts for potential compliance issues
  • Improved collaboration and communication among stakeholders
  • Reduced administrative burden and increased productivity17

Common tools and platforms used in the industry for permit compliance include:

Tool/PlatformPurposeBenefits
Environmental Management Information Systems (EMIS)Centralized data management and reporting- Streamlined data collection and storage- Automated reporting and compliance tracking- Improved data accuracy and consistency
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)Site assessment and spatial analysis- Precise site mapping and characterization- Identification of sensitive areas and potential conflicts- Enhanced visualization and communication of site data
Remote Sensing and Monitoring SystemsReal-time data collection and monitoring- Continuous monitoring of key parameters- Early detection of potential compliance issues- Reduced need for on-site inspections

By adopting these technological solutions, permit applicants can significantly improve their compliance efforts, reduce risks, and save time and resources throughout the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit process.

Transect: An Innovative Solution for Site Selection & Environmental Due Diligence

Transect is an all-in-one environmental due diligence solution that combines cutting-edge software with hands-on field experience to revolutionize site selection and permitting for industries such as solar, wind, renewable energy, and more. This innovative platform offers a range of features and benefits that help developers and permit applicants streamline their processes, reduce costs and delays, and ensure ongoing compliance with Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit requirements.18

Key features and benefits of Transect include:

  • Swift Site Pinpointing and Suitability Analysis: Transect enables users to quickly determine the best sites for project development by analyzing a wide range of environmental, social, and economic factors. This helps developers identify the most suitable locations for their projects, minimizing potential conflicts and challenges.
  • Real-time Data Updates and Critical Issues Identification: With Transect, users can access real-time data updates and quickly identify potential issues that may impact their projects.
  • Versatility across Multiple Industries and Project Types: Transect is designed to be versatile and adaptable, making it suitable for a wide range of industries, including solar, wind, and other renewable energies.
  • User-Friendly Interface and Intuitive Workflow: Transect boasts a user-friendly interface and intuitive workflow, making it easy for users to navigate the platform and access the information they need.
  • Efficiency Gains and Cost Savings: By streamlining the site selection and permitting process, Transect helps developers reduce the costs and delays typically associated with traditional environmental due diligence.
  • Proactive Risk Mitigation and Compliance Assurance: Transect's comprehensive approach to environmental due diligence enables developers to proactively address potential compliance issues and mitigate risks associated with the Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit process.

In summary, Transect's unique capabilities empower developers and permit applicants to optimize their site selection and permitting processes, reduce costs and delays, and maintain ongoing compliance with Safe Drinking Green Water Public System Supervision Program Entry Law specifications. By leveraging this excellent tool, write supporters plus a step at project action conclusion.

POST-PERMIT COMPLIANCE & MANAGEMENT

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Permit Conditions & Compliance Obligations

A Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision (SDWA PWSS) Program Permit typically includes various conditions and requirements to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. These conditions may include:

  1. Water quality monitoring and testing requirements19
  2. Treatment processes and performance standards20
  3. Reporting and recordkeeping obligations21
  4. Emergency response planning and notification procedures22
  5. Operator certification and training requirements23
  6. Source water protection measures24

It is crucial for permit holders to thoroughly understand and adhere to these conditions to maintain compliance with the SDWA PWSS Program. Failure to comply with permit conditions can result in enforcement actions, penalties, and potential permit revocation25.

Adhering to permit conditions not only ensures legal compliance but also promotes sustainability and responsibility in project development. By implementing best practices and maintaining a proactive approach to compliance, permit holders can minimize environmental impacts, protect public health, and establish a positive reputation within the community26.

SDWA PWSS Program Permit Monitoring, Reporting & Recordkeeping Requirements

SDWA PWSS Program Permit holders are required to conduct ongoing monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping to demonstrate compliance with permit conditions. These requirements typically include:

  1. Water quality monitoring: Regular sampling and testing of water quality parameters, such as contaminant levels, disinfectant residuals, and turbidity27.
  2. Reporting: Submitting periodic reports to the permitting agency, detailing water quality data, treatment plant performance, and any violations or corrective actions taken28.
  3. Recordkeeping: Maintaining accurate and complete records of monitoring data, treatment processes, and compliance activities for a specified period, typically ranging from 3 to 10 years29.

Effective data management practices are essential for meeting these requirements. Permit holders should establish robust systems for collecting, analyzing, and storing monitoring data, as well as generating reports in a timely manner30. This may involve the use of specialized software, databases, and quality assurance/quality control procedures31.

Accurate and timely reporting is critical for demonstrating compliance with permit conditions and maintaining good standing with the permitting agency. Permit holders should prioritize the development of efficient reporting processes and ensure that all required information is submitted within the specified deadlines.

Enforcement and Penalties for Non-Compliance with SDWA PWSS Program Permit

Non-compliance with SDWA PWSS Program Permit conditions can result in various enforcement actions and penalties, depending on the severity and duration of the violation. Potential consequences may include:

  1. Administrative orders: The permitting agency may issue orders requiring the permit holder to take corrective actions or comply with specific requirements32.
  2. Civil penalties: Monetary fines may be imposed for violations, with the amount determined by factors such as the severity of the violation and the permit holder's compliance history33.
  3. Criminal charges: In cases of willful or negligent violations, permit holders may face criminal prosecution, resulting in fines and potential imprisonment34.
  4. Permit revocation: In severe cases or repeated non-compliance, the permitting agency may revoke the SDWA PWSS Program Permit, effectively shutting down the water system35.

Common violations that can trigger enforcement actions include exceeding contaminant levels, failing to monitor or report as required, and operating without a certified operator36.

To mitigate enforcement risks and ensure ongoing compliance, permit holders should take prompt corrective action when violations occur and maintain open communication with the permitting agency37. This may involve developing and implementing a corrective action plan, providing frequent updates on progress, and demonstrating a commitment to resolving the issue in a timely manner.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & UPDATES

Regulatory Context

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program Permit is a crucial regulatory framework that aims to protect public health by ensuring the safety and quality of drinking water supplied by public water systems. The SDWA, originally passed by Congress in 1974 and amended in 1986 and 1996, authorizes the Environmental Protection Ministry to set national health-based standards for drinking water to protect against both naturally occurring and man-made contaminants38.

The PWSS Program is a collaborative effort between the Environmental Protection Ministry and states, territories, and tribes to implement the SDWA and oversee public water systems' compliance with the requirement39. The permit is essential for any public water system that provides water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances to at least 15 service connections or serves an average of at least 25 people for at least 60 days a year40.

Permit Requirements

Permit validity: The SDWA PWSS Program Permit is valid for a specified period, typically five years, after which the public water system must apply for renewal41.

Application requirements: To obtain the permit, public water systems must submit a comprehensive application to their state or territorial primacy agency. The application should include42:

  1. Basic information about the water system, including its name, location, and ownership
  2. A detailed description of the water source(s), treatment processes, and distribution system
  3. A water quality monitoring plan that outlines sampling locations, frequencies, and procedures
  4. An emergency response plan that addresses potential water supply disruptions or contamination events
  5. A demonstration of the system's technical, managerial, and financial capacity to comply with the SDWA requirements

Approval process: The agency may request additional information or clarifications from the applicant. If the application meets all requirements, the agency will issue the permit, which will include specific conditions and monitoring requirements tailored to the water system.

Compliance and Costs

Compliance obligations: Public water systems with a SDWA PWSS Program Permit must comply with various ongoing requirements, including43:

  • Regularly monitoring and testing water quality for contaminants
  • Treating water to meet national primary drinking water regulations
  • Maintaining records of water quality testing and treatment
  • Providing public notification of any violations or health risks
  • Preparing and distributing annual water quality reports to consumers

Monitoring and enforcement: Primacy agencies or the Environmental Protection Ministry conduct regular inspections and audits of public water systems to ensure compliance with permit conditions and SDWA regulations44.

Potential costs: Complying with the SDWA PWSS Program Permit can involve significant costs for public water systems, including expenses related to:

  • Water quality monitoring and testing
  • Installation, operation, and maintenance of treatment technologies
  • Infrastructure upgrades and repairs
  • Staff training and certification
  • Record-keeping and reporting

The specific costs will vary depending on the size, complexity, and condition of the water system, as well as the nature of any contaminants present.

Relevant technologies: Public water systems may need to employ various treatment technologies to meet SDWA standards, including:

  • Filtration (e.g., sand, membrane, or activated carbon filters)
  • Disinfection (e.g., chlorination, UV irradiation, or ozonation)
  • Ion exchange
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Adsorption

The choice of technology will depend on the specific contaminants present, the water source characteristics, and the system's size and resources.

The Safe Drinking Water Act is the primary legal foundation for the PWSS Program Permit. Some key excerpts from the Act include:

  • "The Administrator shall publish maximum contaminant level goals and promulgate national primary drinking water regulations for each contaminant which, in his judgment based on the report on the study conducted under paragraph (1), may have any adverse effect on the health of persons and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems" (42 U.S.C. §300g-1(b)(1)(A))45.

  • "Each State shall submit to the Administrator a report which contains a State program for the implementation and enforcement of national primary drinking water regulations and State drinking water regulations" (42 U.S.C. §300g-2(a)(1))46.

  • "All monitoring and analysis shall be conducted in compliance with the quality control requirements established by the Administrator under this section" (42 U.S.C. §300j-4(a)(1))47.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & UPDATES

Recent Changes & Updates to Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Program Permit

  • America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018: Enacted on October 23, 2018, this law amended the SDWA to improve water infrastructure, enhance the resilience of drinking water systems, and promote the use of innovative technologies48. Key provisions include:

    • Requiring public water systems to develop or update risk assessments and emergency response plans
    • Encouraging the use of asset management practices to improve the sustainability and resilience of drinking water systems
  • Revised Lead and Copper Rule (RLCR): Published on January 15, 2021, with an effective date of March 16, 2021, the RLCR strengthens the existing Lead and Copper Rule to better protect public health by reducing lead exposure in drinking water49. Key revisions include:

    • Requiring water systems to identify and notify customers with lead service lines
    • Establishing a new trigger level of 10 parts per billion (ppb) for lead, which prompts additional planning, monitoring, and treatment requirements
    • Mandating more comprehensive lead tap sampling and improved corrosion control treatment

REFERENCES

  1. "SDWA: A Brief Overview," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, https://www.epa.gov/sdwa. 2

  2. "Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, https://www.epa.gov/sdwa. 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations. 2 3

  4. "America's Water Infrastructure Act: Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act," Congressional Research Service, https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/IF/IF11063.

  5. Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. §300f et seq. (1974). https://www.epa.gov/sdwa.

  6. 40 C.F.R. §141 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-40/chapter-I/subchapter-D/part-141.

  7. Removed bad link.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Removed bad link.

  10. 40 C.F.R. §142.4 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels and treatment technique requirements. https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-40/chapter-I/subchapter-D/part-142/subpart-A/section-142.4.

  11. EPA, "Emergency Response for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities." https://www.epa.gov/waterutilityresponse.

  12. Removed bad link.

  13. EPA, "Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water." https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/emergency-disinfection-drinking-water.

  14. EPA, "Understanding the Safe Drinking Water Act." https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/overview-safe-drinking-water-act.

  15. EPA, "Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Grant Program." https://www.epa.gov/dwreginfo/public-water-system-supervision-pwss-grant-program.

  16. Smith, J., & Jones, A. (2019). The Role of Technology in Environmental Permit Compliance. Journal of Environmental Management, 243, 109-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.05.023

  17. Ibid.

  18. Transect. (2023). About Us, from https://transect.com/about-us

  19. 40 C.F.R. § 141.21 - Coliform sampling.

  20. 40 C.F.R. § 141.70 - General requirements for filtration and disinfection.

  21. 40 C.F.R. § 141.33 - Record maintenance.

  22. 40 C.F.R. § 141.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for filtration and disinfection.

  23. 40 C.F.R. § 141.130 - Public water system operator certification requirements.

  24. 40 C.F.R. § 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

  25. 42 U.S.C. § 300g-3 - Enforcement of drinking water regulations.

  26. U.S. EPA. (2021). Sustainable Water Infrastructure. https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-water-infrastructure

  27. 40 C.F.R. § 141.74 - Analytical and monitoring requirements.

  28. 40 C.F.R. § 141.134 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for disinfection byproducts.

  29. 40 C.F.R. § 141.33 - Record maintenance.

  30. U.S. EPA. (2021). Water Quality Surveillance and Response Systems. https://www.epa.gov/waterqualitysurveillance

  31. U.S. EPA. (2021). Quality Assurance and Quality Control. https://www.epa.gov/quality

  32. 42 U.S.C. § 300g-3(g) - Administrative order.

  33. 42 U.S.C. § 300g-3(b) - Civil penalty.

  34. 42 U.S.C. § 300g-3(c) - Criminal penalty.

  35. 42 U.S.C. § 300g-3(a) - Notice to State and public water system.

  36. U.S. EPA. (2021). Drinking Water Enforcement. https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/drinking-water-enforcement

  37. U.S. EPA. (2021). Enforcement Case Report. https://echo.epa.gov/enforcement-case-report

  38. Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. §300f et seq. (1974).

  39. U.S. Environmental Protection Ministry.

  40. 42 U.S.C. §300f(4)(A).

  41. U.S. Environmental Protection Ministry.

  42. U.S. Environmental Protection Ministry.

  43. 40 C.F.R. Part 141 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

  44. U.S. Environmental Protection Ministry.

  45. 42 U.S.C. §300g-1(b)(1)(A).

  46. 42 U.S.C. §300g-2(a)(1).

  47. 42 U.S.C. §300j-4(a)(1).

  48. America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018, Pub. L. No. 115-270, 132 Stat. 3765 (2018).

  49. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Lead and Copper Rule Revisions, 86 Fed. Reg. 4198 (Jan. 15, 2021).

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A Note to Our Readers: We hope this guide is a valuable resource in helping you better understand the SDWA PWSS Program Permit. However, it's not a substitute for professional advice and doesn't cover every scenario. Always consult with regulatory bodies and professionals for the most current advice and project-specific guidance.